A wingingroundeffect wige crafts can be deployed to fly by utilizing the ground effect, which is a natural phenomenon known to improve the efficiency of airplanes during takeoff and landing. Ground effect is the name given to the positive influence on the lifting characteristics of the horizontal surfaces of an aircraft wing when it is close to the ground. A great range of wing in ground effect craft wigs have been. The most significant of these effects is known as the wing in ground wig effect, which refers to the reduction in induced drag experienced by an aircraft as it approaches a height approximately equal to half the aircrafts wingspan above ground or other level surface, such as the sea. As a fun closing activity, students can construct multiwinged owing gliders to compete in the. I am trying to model the flow around a cambered airfoil, taking ground effect into consideration. Drag is primarily skin friction large drag increase if wing gets so thick that flow separates thickness taper wing weight most strongly affected by root depth tapering tc from root to tip can provide lighter wing for given parasite drag. Dec 18, 2009 the name for this type of craft is wing in ground effect, or wig. Ground effect vehicle airfoil simulation in openfoam.
Some novice commentators claim that this wasnt aerodynamically possible. At low altitude the main wing gets in ground effect and is more effective, making a lot of lift. This effect is a consequence of the distortion of the airflow below such surfaces attributable to the proximity of the ground. To fly properly, set vtol to about 25%, then throttle up to around 30%. A wing is so designed that air flows more rapidly over its upper surface than its lower one, leading to a decrease in pressure on the top surface as compared to the bottom. Every aircraft experiences the wig effect as it takes off and lands. Wing in ground effect is quite a new concept of designing fast ships, which has vast. When cruising in ground effect, the only noticeable wake is a trace of small surface ripples behind each wing tip created by the action of the confined wing tip vortices figure 2. Attributed to the resultant force caused by the redirection of air over the aerofoil known as downwash 8.
This report provides the theory of the efficiency of wings operating in ground effect and the historical background to the development of wig craft. A wing in ground wig craft is defined as a vessel capable of operating completely above the surface of the water on a dynamic air cushion created by aerodynamic lift due to the ground effect between the vessel and the waters surface. Revised builders guide to frost protected shallow foundations. Influence of wing configurations on aerodynamic characteristics of wings in ground effect article pdf available in journal of aircraft 473. The resulting pressure difference provides the lift that sustains the aircraft in flight. The experiments were carried out on a wig craft model.
A groundeffect vehicle gev, also called a wingingroundeffect wig, groundeffect craft, wingship or ekranoplan russian. The chord length is the distance from the leading to the trailing edge, measured along the chord line. The wing in ground effect refers to the dense cushion of air that develops between a wing and the water or ground surface when they are close together at low altitude. Definitions of the ground effect and winginground effect vehicles. Wigwings ground effect vehicle wikipedia delta wing, ground effects, flying.
The change in pitching moment with height above the ground plan is less notable as. A new zealand man built a subaru boxer enginepowered vehicle he calls the hoverwing, which is a cross between a conventional hovercraft and a ground effect airplane, capable of 61 mph at 45 feet. When an aircraft is on the ground, there is a bending force on the fuselage. Subarupowered homemade hoverwing is a diy miniekranoplan. Wig vehicles, while not strictly capable of sustained aerodynamic flight, are able to gain enough altitude to hop over obstacles on the surface. In full ground effect flight, the disturbance behind the boat has virtually disappeared figures 811. Also, torsional stress on the fuselage is created by the action of the ailerons when the aircraft is maneuvered. The wing ship technology corporation, a south korean company, is trying to revive the wing in ground effect idea. They found that the lift coefficient could increase by 36% and the drag. A groundeffect vehicle gev, also called a wingingroundeffect wig, ground effect craft. Model ground effect glider improved stability youtube.
When taking off, ground effect may temporarily reduce the stall speed. Thus flying in ground effect ige potentially offers a very economical form of rapid transport. The report also attempts to outline the performance characteristics of wig craft and the operational limitations that might be found on developed wig craft. The mk4, mk5 and mk6 craft are part of the whizzywig project to produce plans, and. Ram ground effect occurs where the wing is at an altitude of hc0. Dec, 2015 introduction to wing in ground effect vehicles prakash prashanth. Apr 27, 2006 a vehicle with a 100foot wing span would be in ground effect at about 50 feet altitude, measured from the bottom surface of the wing. Aerodynamic force is the integrated effect of the pressure and skin friction caused by the flow of air over the aerofoil surface 7.
Aerodynamic characteristics of wing of wig catamaran vehicle. Wigs main attribute is that it should according to popular theory be able to carry significantly more load, and at less power, than a conventional aircraft. With its short wings, it looked airplanelike in planform, but would obviously be. Fly fast, low and fuel efficient with ground effect treehugger. As a means of transportation wige vehicles are well positioned in the niche between ships and conventional aircraft. Mk1 powered by a model aircraft cox 049 engine figure 2. Jun 08, 20 found that our model ground effect glider had poor pitch stability due to the tail providing positive lift rather than negative lift. Many researchers have had some successful attempts to develop wig crafts that fly near sea surface. Pdf influence of wing configurations on aerodynamic.
Because wigs dont really fly, the federal aviation administration doesnt consider them to be aircraft. Can anybody tell me how i would specify the right conditions for my lower boundary the ground in fluent, i. Ground effect one of the most misunderstood aerodynamic. By using the immersed boundarylattice boltzmann method, the ground effect on flapping wing is studied in this work. To model the wing, a naca0012 airfoil is employed, which can ca rry out heaving. Courtesy of race care aerodynamics by joseph katz fig. Design of a wing section in ground effect iowa state university.
The models operation was constrained to ground effect by virtue of its low power. The wingtip vortices streaming behind an aircraft follow a downward inclined path for some distance behind the aircraft and then gradually level out to follow a path at a lower level than the aircraft and also drift apart. A groundeffect vehicle gev, also called a wingingroundeffect wig, groundeffect craft. Qe sum of the external moment with respect to the c. This is a link of a ramwing not excactly wing model that you can build easily with hard paper i build this and is very. Airfoil nomenclature the amount of lift l produced by the.
Jan 20, 20 ground clearances of 10% of the chord of the mainhis. But as you get closer, your induced drag reduces significantly, amplifying ground effect. Par flight leaves a wake on the surface of the water where it has been blown by the fans. Ground effect one of the most misunderstood aerodynamic effects is called ground effect. Most importantly for wind turbine rotors, aerodynamic. South koreas armed forces have already agreed to buy some and the firm says it hopes to announce its first commercial sales to an oilandgas firm and a mediterranean ferry company shortly. In many general aviation airplanes this effect produces greater lift and less drag for a given angle of attack.
Part of theaerospace engineering commons, and themechanical engineering commons. These plans were shelved despite good fuel economy and good payload fractions. The ground effect parts of an open wheeled car s aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically ef. A builders guide to frost protected shallow foundations 1 background a frost protected shallow foundation fpsf is a practical alternative to a deeper, morecostly foundation in cold regions with seasonal ground freezing and the potential for frost heave. For fixed wing aircraft, ground effect is the increased lift and decreased aerodynamic drag that an aircrafts wings generate when they are close to a fixed surface. Experimental investigation of a winginground effect craft. Above ten span lengths, free flight models currently used in aerodynamic theory for aircraft. The camber is the maximum distance between mean camber line and chord line. Wing in ground effect vehicles linkedin slideshare. The effect increases as the wing descends closer to the. As the ld of a wing increases with decreasing ground clearance the craft becomes more efficient in ground effect. Insulation sheets drone model physics projects flying wing no waste plywood boat plans typography alphabet diy tech model airplanes one sheet and two sheet nowaste flying wings one flying wing from one sheet of foam board, no waste and another from two sheets, also no waste. Guidelines for design of dams january 1985 revised january 1989. The winginground wig effect aircraft may realize a new airlift paradigm.
Incidence will be the same both on wing and stabilizer, with cg around 50% wing chord, like an oldtimer or a clg advice from a friend when i asked he how to make an airplane to get a good speed without looping. Above ten span lengths, free flight models currently used in aerodynamic theory for aircraft design, are. It has been downloaded 56 times by fellow modelers from around the world. Front view of model mounted inside the wind tunnel. Wig craft are capable of operating at speeds in excess of 100 knots. The lippisch configuration was chosen because of its supposed greater inherent stability when moving between in ground effect ige and out of ground effect oge. If the wing is turned upsidedown, the resultant force is. The thickness is the distance between the upper and lower surfaces. Another model was the lunclass, entering service with the black sea fleet in 1987. Studies on race car aerodynamics at wing in ground effect. Ground effect vehicles gev are the kind of amphibious vehicles that fly in close proximity of ground, making use of the aerodynamic interaction between the wings of the ground effect vehicle and ground sea or earth surface and it increases their efficiency 34 times more.
The chord line is a line connecing leading an trailing edge. Estonian transport company sea wolf express plans to launch passenger service. Introduction to wing in ground effect vehicles youtube. Experimental investigation of the ground effect of wig craft. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of. The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing in ground effect wig craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and universiti teknologi malaysia utm wind tunnel with and without endplates.
Studing wig wing in ground effect page 5 boat design net. Keywordswing in ground effect, external flow choking, boundary layer, aerodynamic choking. It is the phenomena when an airfoil is operating close to a boundary such as the ground or water. Ground effect can be divided up into two distinct regimes, ram and normal ground effect 1. The focus of this project was to design, build and test a small amphibious wing in ground effect wige vehicle capable of stable flight within ground effect. As a fun closing activity, students can construct multiwinged o wing gliders to compete in the.
Elder 40 wing structure kit planes, rc glider, wooden plane, model shop. This force occurs because of the weight of the aircraft. You can see that ground effect doesnt come into play until youre within 1 wingspan of the ground. Try to keep the plane below 30 ft and just skim the water, while the game doesnt seem to really model wing in ground effects, keeping the plane at a low altitude makes it feel pretty authentic. The difference between par and ground effect flight can be clearly seen. Flyingwing plans aerofred download free model airplane plans. When landing, ground effect can give the pilot the feeling that the aircraft is floating. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground.
Variation of parasite drag with wing tc is small at subsonic, subcritical speeds. For fixedwing aircraft, ground effect is the increased lift and decreased aerodynamic drag that an aircrafts wings generate when they are close to a fixed surface. Because the airfoil section is identical along the wing, the properties of the airfoil and the in. Sea birds use the wig effect to skim the waters surface, barely flapping their wings, for hours at a time. The drag of an aircraft can be split up into different contributions. Wig catamaran, wing in ground effect, aerodynamic characters, naca 6409, cfd analysis.1014 1233 1384 1159 1528 1322 1270 413 1371 1202 11 926 565 482 1021 1169 101 1222 118 60 255 1512 1540 1068 644 91 334 1387 1616 1603 528 1495 1440 780 619 695 1350 411 259 102 421 1107 513 23 1442